Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Daylilies in August

One of the most varied and colorful of the blooming flowers was the daylily.  The English
Garden / River Meadow was filled with large beds of various varieties and colors.
Their botanical name is Hemerocallis.

"Yellow Dazzler"

Daylilies are perennial plants, whose name alludes to the flowers which typically last
 no more than 24 hours. The flowers of most species open in early morning and wither 
during the following night, possibly replaced by another one on the same stalk the next day.
 Some species are night-blooming. Daylilies are not commonly used as cut flowers for formal 
flower arranging, yet they make good cut flowers otherwise as new flowers continue to open
 on cut stems over several days.

"August Pioneer"

Hemerocallis is native to Eurasia, primarily eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and 
Japan. This genus is popular worldwide because of the showy flowers and hardiness of 
many kinds. There are over 60,000 registered cultivars. Hundreds of cultivars have fragrant
 flowers, and more scented cultivars are appearing more frequently in northern hybridization programs. Some cultivars rebloom later in the season, particularly if their capsules, in which 
seeds are developing, are removed.

 "North Wind Dancer" was very festive with lavender, purple, cream, and yellow colors.
It was one of the larger daylilies.

Similar but with deeper colors was "Delilah."

A normal, single daylily flower has three petals and three sepals, collectively called tepals, 
each with a midrib in either the same or a contrasting color. The centermost part of the flower, 
called the throat, usually is of a different color than the more distal areas of the tepals. 
Each  flower usually has six stamens, each with a two-lobed anther. After successful
 pollination, a flower forms a capsule (often erroneously called a pod).

"Beauty to Behold" was a beautiful soft, lemon color


The daylily is often called "the perfect perennial", due to its brilliant colors, ability
 to tolerate drought and frost and to thrive in many different climate zones, and generally low maintenance. It is a vigorous perennial that lasts for many years in a garden, with very 
little care and adapts to many different soil and light conditions.

Usually flowers are named after women, but this is not true of daylies; many species
 were named after men.  This is "Augustus Sanders."


"Techny Water Bug"

I don't know where this name comes from.  Techny, Illinois, is just outside Chicago, but
I know of no connection.  These are small flowers, maybe like bugs on a pond.  The bush
is covered with them.


"Singing Sixteen"


 Daylilies have a relatively short blooming period, depending on the type. Some will bloom 
in early spring while others wait until the summer or even autumn. Most daylily plants
 bloom for one to five weeks, although some will bloom twice in one season ("rebloomers)".

"Uptown Girl"

"Bunny Girl"

There are more than 35,000 daylily cultivars. Depending on the species and cultivar, daylilies
 grow in USDA plant hardiness zones 1 through 11, making daylilies some of the more 
adaptable landscape plants. Hybridizers have developed the vast majority of cultivars within
 the last 100 years. The large-flowered, bright yellow Hemerocallis 'Hyperion', introduced in
 the 1920s, heralded a return to gardens of the once-dismissed daylily, and is still widely 
available in the nursery trade. Daylily breeding has been a specialty in the United States, 
where daylily heat- and drought-resistance made them garden standbys since the 1950s.

"Chinese Hornbill Lilies"
These were rather small, but there were hundreds of them all over the bush.

"Lemon Zest"

"Daniel Mann"

Hemerocallis is one of the very highly hybridized plant genera. Hybridizers register hundreds 
of new cultivars yearly. Hybridizers have extended the genus' color range from the yellow, 
orange, and pale pink of the species, to vibrant reds, purples, lavenders, greenish tones, 
near-black, near-white, and more. However, hybridizers have not yet been able to produce 
a daylily with primarily blue flowers in forms of blue such as azure blue, cobalt blue, and
 sky blue. Flowers of some cultivars have small areas of cobalt blue.

"J. T. Davis"

"Yellow Star"

The highest award a cultivar can receive is the Stout Silver Medal, given in memory of
 Dr. Arlow Burdette Stout, who is considered to be the father of modern daylily breeding 
in North America.

"Skies Ablaze"

"Totally Awesome"

The flowers of Hemerocallis citrina are edible and are used in Chinese cuisine. They are
 sold (fresh or dried) in Asian markets as gum jum or golden needles or yellow flower 
vegetables. They are used in hot and sour soup, daylily soup, Buddha's delight, and moo shu pork. The young green leaves and the rhizomes of some, but not all, species are also edible.


Hemerocallis species are toxic to cats and ingestion may be fatal. Treatment is usually
 successful if started before renal failure has developed.

"Cape Cod"

Plant Daylilies to attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Beginners learn quickly, and the 
old pros know. An investment in Daylilies pays great dividends. Foliage that looks great
 all season, flowers in a rainbow of colors, no special care and now, many that reward you 
with both a spring and fall season of bloom. "Reblooming Daylilies" are just that. Big bloom
 during regular Daylily season in late spring, and then bloom off and on for the rest of the season, usually with a burst of bloom before fall.

"Frances Joliet"


Still blooming
spring to fall
do it all.
Standing firm
tall and bright
bursting buds
a pretty sight

"Rudbeckia Goldsturm" - a sea of golden flowers

"Rudbeckia Goldsturm"

"Chelsey"  Helenium / Sneezeweed
These were incredibly prolific  bloomers with hundreds of flowers
all over the bush.

"Golden Helehium"  /  Sneezeweed

Helianthus "Sunshine Daydream"
This is related to the sunflower and makes an excellent tall flower at the back of
the garden, hardy and blooming for months.

Helianthus  "Sunshine Daydream"  blossoms

These are clematis seed pods, which appear after the flower has bloomed,
died, and fallen off.

A different variety of clematis, still in bloom.

Clematis seed pods

This was called the "New Varieties Garden."  It contained new varieties, for
example, of New Guinea Impatiens.  Until  now they have always been a flat, solid
color like red or white or purple.  But now they have developed varieties whose
petals vary, for example, from pale pink to rose to magenta, all on one plant.

"Sun Standing Salmon Impatiens"

"Cream Colored Cannas.  This are big, tall flowers, excellent for the back
of a garden.

"Red-Orange Cannas" with dark purple leaves, dramatic showpieces in a garden.

"Variegated Swedish Ivy" - and that is the color -
 cream, pink, red veins, very colorful contrast


"Golden Swedish Ivy" - another new variety

Cafe Courtyard.  Would you like a nice, cool drink and perhaps a little
light refreshment after a long walk through the gardens?

Lots of white Spider Plants / Cleomes around the fountain.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Roses and Waterlilies

The Montreal Botanic Garden consists of 30 thematic gardens, the first of which is the
Rose Garden.  A friendly bronze lion stands guard at the entrance above a bed of white
shrub roses, "Alba Meidiland."  Two paths are lined for a quarter of a mile with every
variety of roses, and they were all blooming last week.

"Alba Meidiland" white shrub roses.

Roses form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colors ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant.

"All American Beauty" hybrid tea rose.

Modern Roses are a broad mix which include the following four basic types: Floribunda, 
Grandiflora, Hybrid Tea, and Shrub.  There are other subvarieties.

Hybrid Tea Roses are a Cultivar Group of roses, created by cross-breeding two different
 types of roses. Grown one flower to a long stem, they are supported by long, straight and 
upright stems. Hybrid Tea Roses can be as tall as 6 feet. Each rose bloom can be 
up to 5" in diameter..

"Tabris" floribunda roses.

Floribunda (Latin for "many-flowering") is a modern group of garden roses that was 
developed by crossing hybrid teas with polyantha roses. The idea was to create roses 
that bloomed with the polyantha profusion, but with hybrid tea floral beauty and color range.  
Typical floribundas feature stiff shrubs, smaller and bushier than the average hybrid tea but 
less dense and sprawling than the average polyantha. The flowers are often smaller than hybrid
 teas but are carried in large sprays, giving a better floral effect in the garden.

"Day  Breaker" floribunda rose

Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation
 known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China. Many 
thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use 
as flowering plants.

"Scotch Medley" grandiflora rose.

Grandiflora roses blend the best traits of hybrid teas and floribundas. They produce 
the same elegantly shaped blooms as hybrid teas, but in long-stemmed clusters 
that continually repeat, like floribundas. The plants tend to be tall (up to 7 feet), hardy,
 and disease-resistant.

"Maid of Honor" hybrid tea rose

"Heart and Soul" shrub rose.

Shrub roses take the best of the hardiest rose species, and combine those traits 
with modern repeat blooming and diverse flower forms, colors and fragrances. 
Some shrub roses may grow tall, with vigorous, far-reaching canes; others stay compact.
 Recent rose breeding has focused on developing hardier shrub roses for landscaping
 that need little to no maintenance.

Two "Heart and Soul" shrub roses

"Yankee Doodle" hybrid tea rose

Another "Yankee Doodle" hybrid tea rose

"Touch of Class" hybrid tea rose

"About Face" grandiflora ros

I don't memorize all the names nor do I take notes, but there is a label beside each plant
in the Garden giving its botanical and common names.  With a digital camera, it is easy
to take a photo of the label and have all the information right at hand beside the flower.

"Countess Celeste" shrub rose

Color Symbolism of roses:

Yellow Rose: Joy, Protection against envious lovers, Mature love
White Rose: Purity, Sanctity, Secret admirer, Mysticism
Red Rose: Sacrifice, Immortal love, Health, Memorial, Passion
Pink Rose: First love, Innocence, Healing

"Abbey of Cluny" hybrid tea rose.

Can you imagine the monks at Cluny, in Eastern France, enjoying the color and
fragrance of these beautiful roses each time they walked around the clouster saying
their prayers?

"Chris Evert " hybrid tea rose, in honor of the great tennis player.

"Elle" hybrid tea rose

"Singin' in the Rain"  floribunda rose, clusters of flowers

"Celine Dion"  shrub rose

Celine's fans often cover the stage at the end of one of her concerts with hundreds 
of these colorful roses.  While in Montreal, I saw a photo of Celine's recent visit to
Montreal and a stage completely covered in Celine Roses.

"Charlotte Brownell" hybrid rose

In Christian symbolism, a rose bush was said to have grown at the site of Christ's death. 
His blood shed is often associated with a red rose, and combined with its thorns,
 it thus symbolized the ultimate sacrifice.

"Rainbow Sorbet: hybrid rose

The rose was an icon of veneration in the pre-Christian era, and was used in ancient Rome to symbolize devotion to the goddess Venus. Following the Christianization of Rome under the 
Emperor Constantine, the rose became identified with the Virgin Mary. The rose symbol 
eventually led to the creation of the rosary prayer and devotional object.

"Always Rosy" hybrid tea rose

The rose is the national flower of England, a usage dating back to the English civil wars of the fifteenth century (later called Wars of the Roses), in which a red rose represented the House of Lancaster, and a white rose represented the House of York. The Tudor dynasty created 
the Tudor rose, which united both the white and the red roses, a symbolism dramatized by Shakespeare in his play Richard III.

"House of Orange" hybrid tea rose

In Christian art, the white rose is a symbol of purity, the gold or yellow rose a symbol 
of impossible perfection and papal benediction, and the red rose a symbol for martyrdom.

"Chicago Peace" hybrid tea rose

The rose is a frequent symbol for the Virgin Mary, who is called a "rose without thorns" 
since she was free of original sin. This may refer to St. Ambrose's legend that the rose grew, 
without thorns, in the Garden of Eden. After the Fall, it became an earthly plant, and the
 thorns appeared as a reminder of man's sins and fall from grace. The scent and beauty 
remained as a poignant reminder of the lost perfection of Paradise.

"Chicago Peace" hybrid tea rose

"Eureka" floribunda rose, growing in clusters

On the rosary, the Joyful Mysteries, those relating to the happy events in Mary's life, 
were white roses; those relating to her suffering, the Sorrowful Mysteries, were red;
 and the Glorious Mysteries, the triumphant events, were symbolized by the yellow 
or golden rose. The rosary can be considered a symbolic wreath of red, white, 
and yellow roses.

"Never Alone" shrub rose with many, smaller flowers

"Golden Centennial" shrub rose

Japanese Garden

White Water Lilies / Nymphaea Candida

Egyptian white water lilies open at night and close in the morning.

There are a number of concrete lined pools in the Water Lily Garden.  Paths lead to the

 Chinese Garden and Japanese Garden from here.

Blue Water Lilies  /  Nymphaea Capensis

Yellow Water Lilies  /  Nymphaea Mexicana

The lake in the Japanese Garden is surrounded by flowering cherry trees, which are

particularly beautiful in the spring.  The formal tea ceremony is performed in the
pavilion of the Japanese Garden.

Nymphaea Cerulaea

The flowers of the Egyptian blue water lily open in the morning and then
sink beneath the water at dusk.

"Pink Beauty" Water Lily

Lotus Flower

"Emperial Courtesan" lotus